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Structure of DNA
Four nucleotides (A,T,C,G) make up the "rungs" of the ladder.
The "rails" of the ladder are made of sugar and phosphate molecules
which hold the rungs. DNA strands are typically very long molecules.
· The rungs are formed only by complimentary "Nucleotide Pairs" forming across the double helix (twisted ladder): A only pairs with T and C only pairs with G. These pairs are also known as "Base Pairs".
· RNA is used to transfer data and, in general, is composed of short strands of only one side of the ladder
Why is DNA so important in examining the theory of evolution? When discussing many of the most fundamental concepts (and therefore some of the most fundamental problems) in the theory of evolution, it is vitally important to gain at least a general understanding of how information is stored, reproduced, and used by the DNA molecule. In addition, when one looks at life itself, an understanding of the mathematical probabilities in the formation of DNA by chance is essential.
HOW DOES DNA WORK?
Since 1953, molecular biologists have concluded that the growth and metabolism of all life on earth is carefully controlled by DNA, that DNA contains the language necessary for life to function. This is also known as "the Genetic Code". (Further on, we will discuss the inherent implications of "codes" and "language" in DNA).
..IS AN EXTREMELY COMPLEX INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM
To use a computer as an analogy, DNA is not only hardware, but has software pre-loaded that is specific to all living organisms and systems. In fact, DNA is the most complex computer code in existence. Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft is quoted as saying, "Human DNA is like a computer program but far, far more advanced than any software ever created".
SO WHAT DID DNA MEAN TO THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION?
Now that DNA was on the scene, any theory which attempted to explain the origin of life, without the benefit of a Creator, had to incorporate DNA. Thus came about the Neo-Darwinian Synthesis. Scientists postulated that mutations sometimes occurred- the incorrect placement of a nucleotide (note that the word error was not used) - and that mutations are the only source of change and variation. The following general principles replaced the principles of Darwin.The Neo-Darwinian Synthesis:
Evolutionists believe that: Simple single cell organism + long time + beneficial mutations = highly complex organisms
LETS TAKE A CLOSER LOOK AT THE PROCESS.
Mutation is the driving mechanism behind evolutionary change. The theory says that as beneficial mutations increase in a population, new species arise that are distinctly different than the parent population. So what about beneficial mutations? We know that mutations are possible plants have been mutated to create changes in flower color. However, to generate an entirely new organism or a system, such as the visual system, by random mutation is impossible. When we study INFORMATION THEORY and MOLECULAR BIOLOGY further in this course you will understand why.
According to Darwin's theory all life forms on earth began as a single cell organism. This single celled organism evolved to all of the life forms past and present, including man.
Look at this from an information point of view, to change a single celled organism to a human being, requires the production of enormous amounts of new information. It would require billions of bits of new beneficial information. To use a numerical example, a human strand of DNA contains approximately 6 billion nucleotide pairs and (using an amoeba as an example) a single cell organism's DNA strand contains approximately 2 million nucleotide pairs:
This is like comparing the instruction manual needed for the construction of a paper airplane versus the instruction manual needed for the construction of the space shuttle!
According to Neo-Darwinian principles, the information contained in that first single celled creature was MUTATED over the course of time to produce the vastly greater amount of information required to form man. Allegedly, the processes of MUTATION of information caused this to happen.
Question... Are mutations capable of causing this to happen???? Lets look at some quotes from famous scientists about mutations...
Earnst Mayer in Evolutionary Challenges to the Mathematical Interpretation of Evolution, 1967, writes "Ultimately, all variation is, of course, due to mutation".
Theodosius Bavzinsky, writing on the methods of evolutionary biology in The American Scientist, 1957, states, "The process of mutation is the only known source of the raw materials of genetic variability, and therefore evolution. The mutants which arise are, with rare exception, deleterious (harmful) to their carriers, at least in the environment in which they live in".
It should be noted that Mr. Bavzinsky recognizes the fact that mutations are almost always harmful or deadly to the host organism. In addition, it turns out that science has condemned mutation itself: it has been calculated/observed that out of 10,000 mutations; 9,999 are either harmful, lethal, or at best neutral. THIS MEANS ONLY ONE OUT OF EVERY 10,000 MUTATIONS MIGHT BE BENEFICIAL, ACCORDING TO SCIENCE! In fact there are lethal diseases that are the result of a single mutation - sickle cell anemia is a good example.
Here is the kicker! If out of every 10,000 mutations only one is of any benefit, over time, many thousands of harmful or lethal mutations will accumulate for every one beneficial mutation. Remember that all of these mutations, bad and good, will be recorded in the DNA and be passed on to the next generation! The end result of this, according to many theorists, that the population of an organism will go extinct long before the production of any new structures or functions in an organism!
Consider a computer programmer writing code for a new program. If any errors occur in the program code they are called "bugs", and bugs are a bad thing for the function of a program. A mutation in a DNA molecule is the informational equivalent of a bug in a program code.
A biologist named C. P. Martin wrote in A Non-Geneticist Looks at Evolution, The American Scientist, Jan, 1953, pg 102, "Mutations are more than just sudden changes in heredity, they also affect the viability of a population, and to our best knowledge, they invariably affect it adversely."
To re-state the words of C.P. Martin, MUTATIONS ARE HARMFUL TO DNA, and will ultimately destroy the population to which they are applied!
Remember the comments above from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in its description of the function of DNA: Non-faithful replication or inability to correct errors and damage to DNA results in mutations. The word "damage" is not typically a positive one, neither are the terms "non-faithful replication" or "inability to correct errors".
In short, the very mechanism evolutionists claim
has brought about the living creatures we see today, would also have caused
all living creatures to die out, ages ago.
Evolutionists face another hurdle when faced with the 2nd law of thermodynamics. Please note that the 2nd law is not a theory, it has been well proven in the lab.
The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics states:
"With the advance of time, the amount of order in a closed system always decreases."
From an informational point of view, the 2nd Law indicates that the amount of information in a system always decreases as time advances! With the advance of time, the 2nd Law requires information to break down, not increase. This presents a tremendous problem if you are going to claim that a code will improve with random mutation, especially when the vast majority of those mutations are harmful or fatal to the code (to say nothing of the organisms affected)!
Imagine working with a computer program that creates within itself a new "bug" every 5 minutes (for those of you using Windows ME, this should be easy). If only one out of every 10,000 of these bugs is of any benefit, how long will this program last on your computer before you remove it (it goes extinct).
There are many more analogies like the one just mentioned. If you can get a person to realize just this one problem with the Theory of Evolution, the seed of investigation may have been planted.
2 THE ORIGIN OF COMPLEX STRUCTURES